Explain the main pros and cons in the debate about the amendment.

The formal process of amending the Constitution is cumbersome and slow.  While this fact explains why relatively few amendments have been adopted, it does not discourage advocates of constitutional change from proposing them. Four amendment proposals that have gained considerable attention are the Balanced Budget Amendment, the Birthright Citizenship Amendment, the Equal Rights Amendment, and the Overturn Citizens United Amendment. Select one of these proposals as the topic of your initial post and use the assigned resources to inform yourself about its purpose and the arguments of its supporters and critics.

Before writing your initial post, review the assigned resources. To easily access the resources from the Ashford University Library, please see the table located in the Course Materials section.

In your initial post of at least 200-250 words, briefly summarize what the proposed amendment would do and the problem its proponents say it will solve. Explain the main pros and cons in the debate about the amendment. Evaluate the proposed amendment from two perspectives:

  • Your own political philosophy, values or ideology. (Justify your assessment by clearly explaining your political values and why they lead you to support or oppose the amendment.)
  • The likelihood that the proposed amendment will eventually be ratified to become part of the Constitution. (Justify your assessment by explaining how the proposal will or will not, in your judgment, survive the ratification process.)

Fully respond to all parts of the question. Write in your own words. Support your position with APA citations to two or more of the assigned resources required for this discussion. Please be sure that you demonstrate understanding of these resources, integrate them into your argument, and cite them properly.

Discuss What do you consider to be the most important factor in fixing the numerous issues inherent in the U.S. health care system?

Week 5 Discussion Threads due 10/9/14. Will pay $5 per discussion thread. Must be quality work and plagiarism free.“THIS IS NOT A PAPER”  Discussion 2 contains a video I will have to provide my school login to access the video that information will be provided by private message.  Answers must adhere to the questions asked in the discussion threads.

 

Discussion # 1

 

Health and medical technologies available to both health care providers and administrators continue to advance rapidly. Choose a recent medical technology and provide a description of it. Discuss some of the pros and cons of this technology and assess how it drives consumer demand, health system changes, and health care delivery. Consider how this technology could be used in your current or future career.

 

Discussion # 2- “Will provide school login info via private message to view video”

 

After viewing the video, address the following in your post:

    • What do you consider to be the most important factor in fixing the numerous issues inherent in the U.S. health care system?

 

    • What role would selected major stakeholders play in its implementation?

 

    • What types of research studies could be conducted that would support your stance?

 

  • How might the proposed emphasis on preventative health care affect the cost of health care in the future?  What impact would a focus on preventative health care have on your chosen factor?

Discuss the specific negotiation skills that President Bush utilized in his one-way negotiation session with Saddam Hussein that he addressed in front of Congress.

On 3 August 1990, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 600 condemning the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and demanding that Iraq unconditionally withdraw all forces deployed in Kuwait.   After a series of failed negotiations between major world powers and Iraq, President George H.W. Bush conducted a one way negotiation, in front of the full support of Congress and the Senate, stating the requirements for a peaceful resolution to the invasion.   Please watch the terms of the negotiation as presented in the video.

Watch the video “President George H.W. Bush – Address Before Congress on Iraq”, (6m 03s), located at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ll_GjnDCbjk.

Write a two (2) page paper in which you:

  1. Discuss the specific negotiation skills that President Bush utilized in his one-way negotiation session with Saddam Hussein that he addressed in front of Congress. Provide specific examples of these negotiation skills to support your rationale.
  2. Debate whether or not you believe President Bush’s approaches to the negotiation process were effective or ineffective in achieving his desired results. Justify your response.
  3. Indicate who you believe was in control of the outcome of the negotiation attempts—Bush or Hussein. Provide concrete examples of this control to support your position.
  4. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

Debate whether or not you believe President Bush’s approaches to the negotiation process were effective or ineffective in achieving his desired results. Justify your response.

On 3 August 1990, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 600 condemning the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and demanding that Iraq unconditionally withdraw all forces deployed in Kuwait.   After a series of failed negotiations between major world powers and Iraq, President George H.W. Bush conducted a one way negotiation, in front of the full support of Congress and the Senate, stating the requirements for a peaceful resolution to the invasion.   Please watch the terms of the negotiation as presented in the video.

Watch the video “President George H.W. Bush – Address Before Congress on Iraq”, (6m 03s), located at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ll_GjnDCbjk.

Write a two (2) page paper in which you:

  1. Discuss the specific negotiation skills that President Bush utilized in his one-way negotiation session with Saddam Hussein that he addressed in front of Congress. Provide specific examples of these negotiation skills to support your rationale.
  2. Debate whether or not you believe President Bush’s approaches to the negotiation process were effective or ineffective in achieving his desired results. Justify your response.
  3. Indicate who you believe was in control of the outcome of the negotiation attempts—Bush or Hussein. Provide concrete examples of this control to support your position.
  4. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

describe computer viruses that attack computer networks.

Week 1 Discussion Forum

Select two of the Questions to Ponder for this week for your posting. Please select only two and do a thorough job on them.  Do not attempt to respond to all of the questions.  We are looking at the basic concepts that we will continue to encounter through the rest of the course in many different time periods and situations.  In each one you may be surprised to find how these ideas continue to influence the outcome of events.

 

Questions to Ponder:

  1. What is Denial, hiding the real?
  2. What is Deception, showing the false?
  3. How do the two relate to each other?
  4. What are the roles of security, co-ordination and monitoring in Denial and Deception?
  5. Why do Denial and Deception continue to succeed in spite of all that is known about them?
  6. What are the roles of such factors as incomplete information, preconceived ideas and fears in Denial and Deception?

Instructions:

Your initial post should be at least 250-500 words in length (not including references listed at the end). Please respond to at least 2 other students and one follow up question. Responses should be a minimum of 150 words in length and include references to the material.

 

Student Response #1:

According the Webster’s Dictionary defines deception as: “the act of making someone believe something that is not true: the act of deceiving someone: an act or statement intended to make people believe something that is not true.”  In many cases it is hard to actually tell a lie, as human beings, our physiology can make us sweat, tremble, stutter or even make us blush.  But deception is an art for those who cannot lie but are master of deflecting the truth to an unknown level.

There are very different times in human literature and history where deception plays an integral part to achieve a goal.  The Trojan horse has been in both history and fictional literature, in technology it has been used too to describe computer viruses that attack computer networks.  During the Holocaust, Oscar Schindler saved thousands of lives thru the use of his businesses after the Nazis massacre a whole town.  The Nazis also created extermination camps that were fronts for fabrication buildings for planes, weapons and ammunitions.  Mobster organizations maintained law enforcement officials at bay, behind hundreds and thousands of businesses while laundering money and committing bribes, extortions, and murder.  Some of the most famous serial killers maintained a dull life while hiding their crimes, serial killers like John Wayne Gacy volunteered for the children hospital as Pogo the Clown by day and at night he would kill young men.  How every single one of these men deceived hundreds of thousands of people is feat.

 

Governments have to maintain a level secrecy when conducting clandestine operations.  There has been very few times when our government has worked clandestine operations that have become deceptive with help from other governments.  Last year the film Argo exaggerated what CIA operative Tony Mendez did to assist six Americans to escape Iran during it coup d eta of 1979.  The real story showed that the six Americans received assistance from Canadian ambassador, Ken Taylor.  Mendez created a crazy and unusual plan to make a fake movie with the idea of making the six Americans part of a scouting location crew for a movie.  Mendez managed to extradite seven people including himself while eluding Iranian authorities.  It was the ultimate deception act, it was public and at the same time humiliating for the Iranians.

The art of deception is an incredible skill for anyone looking to avoid a major conflict.  Lying can create it shares of problems and it can (of course) be less credible than deception.

 

Student Response #2:

Denial and deception are two different things that are often used together to complement one another. In metaphoric terms, denial is a stunning hit and deception is a knockout punch, or vice versa. Denial is concealing information and denying adversarial access to correct information concerning an intention or action. Denial often includes high security measures to prevent foreign adversaries or surveillance from discovering or revealing secret information on political or operational matters. It is basically keeping under wraps weaknesses or strengths, or anything you don’t want the adversary to know. By denying this information, there is an advantage gained over the adversary. An example of denial would be concealing dangerous weapons within a safe house or simply finding a safe place to hide.

 

Deception is intentional and is done to gain an advantage. Deception is the form of concealment and activity which is designed to mislead. Deception can be achieved in a few ways. Two ways are through fabrication and manipulation. Fabrication is the creation and presentation of false information as if it were in fact, true. Manipulation is the use of information which is technically true but is being presented out of its accurate context in order to create a false implication to the receiver. Deception can be achieved by omitting certain parts of information in order to create false assumptions and views on the information presented. Deception is actually human nature as denial is. Many kids learn to fabricate when they are young in order to tell the truth (technically), and still leave out key information to keep them clear of trouble. Operationally, blowing up fake models of air balloons in the shape of tanks or missiles is deception.

What are the roles of such factors as incomplete information, preconceived ideas and fears in Denial and Deception?

Week 1 Discussion Forum

Select two of the Questions to Ponder for this week for your posting. Please select only two and do a thorough job on them.  Do not attempt to respond to all of the questions.  We are looking at the basic concepts that we will continue to encounter through the rest of the course in many different time periods and situations.  In each one you may be surprised to find how these ideas continue to influence the outcome of events.

 

Questions to Ponder:

  1. What is Denial, hiding the real?
  2. What is Deception, showing the false?
  3. How do the two relate to each other?
  4. What are the roles of security, co-ordination and monitoring in Denial and Deception?
  5. Why do Denial and Deception continue to succeed in spite of all that is known about them?
  6. What are the roles of such factors as incomplete information, preconceived ideas and fears in Denial and Deception?

Instructions:

Your initial post should be at least 250-500 words in length (not including references listed at the end). Please respond to at least 2 other students and one follow up question. Responses should be a minimum of 150 words in length and include references to the material.

 

Student Response #1:

According the Webster’s Dictionary defines deception as: “the act of making someone believe something that is not true: the act of deceiving someone: an act or statement intended to make people believe something that is not true.”  In many cases it is hard to actually tell a lie, as human beings, our physiology can make us sweat, tremble, stutter or even make us blush.  But deception is an art for those who cannot lie but are master of deflecting the truth to an unknown level.

There are very different times in human literature and history where deception plays an integral part to achieve a goal.  The Trojan horse has been in both history and fictional literature, in technology it has been used too to describe computer viruses that attack computer networks.  During the Holocaust, Oscar Schindler saved thousands of lives thru the use of his businesses after the Nazis massacre a whole town.  The Nazis also created extermination camps that were fronts for fabrication buildings for planes, weapons and ammunitions.  Mobster organizations maintained law enforcement officials at bay, behind hundreds and thousands of businesses while laundering money and committing bribes, extortions, and murder.  Some of the most famous serial killers maintained a dull life while hiding their crimes, serial killers like John Wayne Gacy volunteered for the children hospital as Pogo the Clown by day and at night he would kill young men.  How every single one of these men deceived hundreds of thousands of people is feat.

 

Governments have to maintain a level secrecy when conducting clandestine operations.  There has been very few times when our government has worked clandestine operations that have become deceptive with help from other governments.  Last year the film Argo exaggerated what CIA operative Tony Mendez did to assist six Americans to escape Iran during it coup d eta of 1979.  The real story showed that the six Americans received assistance from Canadian ambassador, Ken Taylor.  Mendez created a crazy and unusual plan to make a fake movie with the idea of making the six Americans part of a scouting location crew for a movie.  Mendez managed to extradite seven people including himself while eluding Iranian authorities.  It was the ultimate deception act, it was public and at the same time humiliating for the Iranians.

The art of deception is an incredible skill for anyone looking to avoid a major conflict.  Lying can create it shares of problems and it can (of course) be less credible than deception.

 

Student Response #2:

Denial and deception are two different things that are often used together to complement one another. In metaphoric terms, denial is a stunning hit and deception is a knockout punch, or vice versa. Denial is concealing information and denying adversarial access to correct information concerning an intention or action. Denial often includes high security measures to prevent foreign adversaries or surveillance from discovering or revealing secret information on political or operational matters. It is basically keeping under wraps weaknesses or strengths, or anything you don’t want the adversary to know. By denying this information, there is an advantage gained over the adversary. An example of denial would be concealing dangerous weapons within a safe house or simply finding a safe place to hide.

 

Deception is intentional and is done to gain an advantage. Deception is the form of concealment and activity which is designed to mislead. Deception can be achieved in a few ways. Two ways are through fabrication and manipulation. Fabrication is the creation and presentation of false information as if it were in fact, true. Manipulation is the use of information which is technically true but is being presented out of its accurate context in order to create a false implication to the receiver. Deception can be achieved by omitting certain parts of information in order to create false assumptions and views on the information presented. Deception is actually human nature as denial is. Many kids learn to fabricate when they are young in order to tell the truth (technically), and still leave out key information to keep them clear of trouble. Operationally, blowing up fake models of air balloons in the shape of tanks or missiles is deception.

What is Open Source Intelligence? How has the history of information availability and information literacy affected OSINT?

Week 1 Discussion Forum

What is Open Source Intelligence? How has the history of information availability and information literacy affected OSINT?

 

For this forum, you are to answer one of the questions listed below. This original post must be a minimum of 500 words.  Additionally, you must post two (2) peer reviews on a classmates original post.  Please be courteous and succinct in your response.  The goal is to extend the conversation through your observations and experience.

Questions:
1) What is OSINT? Is OSINT really intelligence?
2) How has the history of information availability and information literacy affected OSINT?
3) What principles does Clive Best use to differentiate OSINT as a unique intelligence discipline?

Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 250 words. Please respond to at least 2 other students. Responses should be a minimum of 200 words each and include direct questions.

 

Student Response #1:

Open source intelligence (OSINT), can be defined as intelligence collected through unclassified means such as news outlets, Internet, reports, interviews or any other public means of acquiring information.  This, OSINT must be available to the average person(s) to be considered “open” source.  There are many reasons to consider OSINT an official part of the intelligence community.  Because of constant changes throughout the world, it is important to be able to convey what is happening to our government leadership and its citizens.  Because our intelligence agencies do not have sources in every facet of the world, we must rely on information we collect through open source intelligence.

 

Open source intelligence also gives our intelligence community a way to effectively and truthfully (to the best of their ability) relay to the nation with out compromising our classified sources of intelligence.  It can also help the government make decisions to give its people the appearance of action, even though actual classified intelligence might not indicate actions are needed.  The truth is that by reading headlines of open source medias.  One can put together a sense of what is happening throughout the world.  Once you know how to read between the lines you can more so than not, see that there is much more to the story.

 

Open source intelligence CAN be damaging to the United States and its allies.  Just because one piece of open information is considered public, does not mean that many pieces of information could not be sensitive.  For instance, if a M1 Abrams (US tank) mechanic uploaded the repair manual for the tank on to a website, even though most Army manuals can be found on line, this does not mean the manual contains nothing that can be deemed as “sensitive”, even though it is not technically considered classified.  I bring up this example on purpose because this exact situation happened a couple years ago.  The concern was that by publishing these manuals of our battle equipment, our enemies might be able to identify weaknesses in our tanks, planes, trucks etc.  So it IS possible that by collecting multiple open source products, that you could actually create or re-create something classified.

 

During my time in Army counter-intelligence counter-terrorism we used open source information to compare and confirm classified intelligence.  I am not saying that if the two did not match up then we discredited the classified intelligence, but it was just another way to try to confirm what we already knew.  I think one of the biggest open sources used by anyone is imagery.  Since the creation of “Google Earth” the civilian imagery industry has boomed and many more companies have come out with their own mapping programs.  There are now multiple open sources to obtain aerial photos from all over the world.  I can remember printing off maps from Google Earth because at the time their imagery was clearer than ours….at the time.

 

In conclusion I can personally attest to the importance of open source intelligence collection and its relevance.  Just because something may be reported in a news outlet first, does not mean it is any less true than classified information.  The biggest difference between open source information and classified is where the source originated from.

 

 

Student Response #2:

OSINT is a form of intelligence collection, otherwise known as open source intelligence. It has become one of the most popular forms of intelligence collection, ranging around 80% of today’s available intelligence1, due to its easy accessibility without violating civil liberties. This has a lot to do with today’s society and their dependency upon social media and the information they freely display to the world. If the analyst knows what path they are going to take for the intelligence collection, they can easily trace their findings based off of open source intelligence. Additionally, there are many sensitive documents leaked to the public due to dishonest federal (amongst other government agencies) workers who conduct acts of espionage. This is a serious issue because these documents are not only leaked to the American public, but also our adversaries.

 

OSINT is a pertinent source of intelligence collection as any other. It provides necessary information that can assist in compiling a report to better understand the subject at hand. Due to the public’s high use of social media, and the major power source of the internet, analysts and collectors are able to gather intelligence that can be traced worldwide, leading to the ultimate power hub in which the collectors are searching for. Many believe OSINT to not be a “true INT,” however it is as true as any other. It takes strategy and planning to execute the collection, and the analysts must know what they are looking for; much like SIGINT and HUMINT. In my opinion, OSINT is much more beneficial in terms of intelligence collection because of the different angles that can be used to collect intelligence. Also, it in no way violates civil liberties that many Americans are currently standing up for due to recent leaks from Edward Snowden and the NSA. OPSEC is something the public needs to better understand for this purpose, but at the same time it can help the intelligence community and their ability to obtain information that may be useful in combating foreign attacks.

 

I don’t think a lot of people realize that by adding a GPS to your phone and checking into your favorite restaurant for dinner gives everyone, including the adversary, an idea of your location and it is free knowledge. If an OSINT collector has a lead and can associate a subject with who they are investigating, this assists them in furthering their investigation.

 

Although OPSEC should be something stressed to the American public, it is also an issue that other countries have problems with, making U.S. intelligence collection beneficial worldwide. If the information is freely given then it can be traced just as easily. OSINT is a very important asset to the intelligence community and will only continue to be as long as information is given without a second thought. Within an instant someone can know your family’s names, where you were born, what you like, who your best friends are, etc. OSINT provides intimate details to an individual’s life, and can be extremely useful to whomever is collecting that information; whether it be the U.S. intelligence community or the adversary.

Discuss How has the history of information availability and information literacy affected OSINT?

Week 1 Discussion Forum

What is Open Source Intelligence? How has the history of information availability and information literacy affected OSINT?

 

For this forum, you are to answer one of the questions listed below. This original post must be a minimum of 500 words.  Additionally, you must post two (2) peer reviews on a classmates original post.  Please be courteous and succinct in your response.  The goal is to extend the conversation through your observations and experience.

Questions:
1) What is OSINT? Is OSINT really intelligence?
2) How has the history of information availability and information literacy affected OSINT?
3) What principles does Clive Best use to differentiate OSINT as a unique intelligence discipline?

Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 250 words. Please respond to at least 2 other students. Responses should be a minimum of 200 words each and include direct questions.

 

Student Response #1:

Open source intelligence (OSINT), can be defined as intelligence collected through unclassified means such as news outlets, Internet, reports, interviews or any other public means of acquiring information.  This, OSINT must be available to the average person(s) to be considered “open” source.  There are many reasons to consider OSINT an official part of the intelligence community.  Because of constant changes throughout the world, it is important to be able to convey what is happening to our government leadership and its citizens.  Because our intelligence agencies do not have sources in every facet of the world, we must rely on information we collect through open source intelligence.

 

Open source intelligence also gives our intelligence community a way to effectively and truthfully (to the best of their ability) relay to the nation with out compromising our classified sources of intelligence.  It can also help the government make decisions to give its people the appearance of action, even though actual classified intelligence might not indicate actions are needed.  The truth is that by reading headlines of open source medias.  One can put together a sense of what is happening throughout the world.  Once you know how to read between the lines you can more so than not, see that there is much more to the story.

 

Open source intelligence CAN be damaging to the United States and its allies.  Just because one piece of open information is considered public, does not mean that many pieces of information could not be sensitive.  For instance, if a M1 Abrams (US tank) mechanic uploaded the repair manual for the tank on to a website, even though most Army manuals can be found on line, this does not mean the manual contains nothing that can be deemed as “sensitive”, even though it is not technically considered classified.  I bring up this example on purpose because this exact situation happened a couple years ago.  The concern was that by publishing these manuals of our battle equipment, our enemies might be able to identify weaknesses in our tanks, planes, trucks etc.  So it IS possible that by collecting multiple open source products, that you could actually create or re-create something classified.

 

During my time in Army counter-intelligence counter-terrorism we used open source information to compare and confirm classified intelligence.  I am not saying that if the two did not match up then we discredited the classified intelligence, but it was just another way to try to confirm what we already knew.  I think one of the biggest open sources used by anyone is imagery.  Since the creation of “Google Earth” the civilian imagery industry has boomed and many more companies have come out with their own mapping programs.  There are now multiple open sources to obtain aerial photos from all over the world.  I can remember printing off maps from Google Earth because at the time their imagery was clearer than ours….at the time.

 

In conclusion I can personally attest to the importance of open source intelligence collection and its relevance.  Just because something may be reported in a news outlet first, does not mean it is any less true than classified information.  The biggest difference between open source information and classified is where the source originated from.

 

 

Student Response #2:

OSINT is a form of intelligence collection, otherwise known as open source intelligence. It has become one of the most popular forms of intelligence collection, ranging around 80% of today’s available intelligence1, due to its easy accessibility without violating civil liberties. This has a lot to do with today’s society and their dependency upon social media and the information they freely display to the world. If the analyst knows what path they are going to take for the intelligence collection, they can easily trace their findings based off of open source intelligence. Additionally, there are many sensitive documents leaked to the public due to dishonest federal (amongst other government agencies) workers who conduct acts of espionage. This is a serious issue because these documents are not only leaked to the American public, but also our adversaries.

 

OSINT is a pertinent source of intelligence collection as any other. It provides necessary information that can assist in compiling a report to better understand the subject at hand. Due to the public’s high use of social media, and the major power source of the internet, analysts and collectors are able to gather intelligence that can be traced worldwide, leading to the ultimate power hub in which the collectors are searching for. Many believe OSINT to not be a “true INT,” however it is as true as any other. It takes strategy and planning to execute the collection, and the analysts must know what they are looking for; much like SIGINT and HUMINT. In my opinion, OSINT is much more beneficial in terms of intelligence collection because of the different angles that can be used to collect intelligence. Also, it in no way violates civil liberties that many Americans are currently standing up for due to recent leaks from Edward Snowden and the NSA. OPSEC is something the public needs to better understand for this purpose, but at the same time it can help the intelligence community and their ability to obtain information that may be useful in combating foreign attacks.

 

I don’t think a lot of people realize that by adding a GPS to your phone and checking into your favorite restaurant for dinner gives everyone, including the adversary, an idea of your location and it is free knowledge. If an OSINT collector has a lead and can associate a subject with who they are investigating, this assists them in furthering their investigation.

 

Although OPSEC should be something stressed to the American public, it is also an issue that other countries have problems with, making U.S. intelligence collection beneficial worldwide. If the information is freely given then it can be traced just as easily. OSINT is a very important asset to the intelligence community and will only continue to be as long as information is given without a second thought. Within an instant someone can know your family’s names, where you were born, what you like, who your best friends are, etc. OSINT provides intimate details to an individual’s life, and can be extremely useful to whomever is collecting that information; whether it be the U.S. intelligence community or the adversary.

Discuss Civil Liberties, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror

Civil Liberties, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror

The final assignment for this course is a Final Paper. The purpose of the Final Paper is to give you an opportunity to apply much of what you have learned about American national government to an examination of civil liberties in the context of the war on terror. The Final Paper represents 20% of the overall course grade.

Soon after the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, the Bush administration developed a plan for holding and interrogating captured prisoners. They were sent to a prison inside a U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, on land leased from the government of Cuba. Since 2002, over 700 men have been detained at Gitmo. Most have been released without charges or turned over to other governments. In 2011, Congress specifically prohibited the expenditure of funds to transfer Gitmo prisoners to detention facilities in the continental United States, making it virtually impossible to try them in civilian courts. As of April 2012, 169 remained in detention at Gitmo (Sutton, 2012).

An assumption made by the Bush administration in selecting this location was that it was beyond the jurisdiction of U.S. courts. The administration wanted to avoid any judicial oversight of how it handled detainees, characterized as enemy combatants. A possible legal challenge to indefinite detention with no formal charges or judicial proceedings might arise from the habeas corpus provision of the Constitution.

Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution states, “The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.” Under this provision, persons detained by the government are entitled to a judicial hearing to determine if there is any legal basis for their detention. Some legal commentators refer to the right of habeas corpus as the “great writ of liberty” because it is a prisoner’s ultimate recourse to an impartial judge who can review the possibility that he is being held illegally by the executive (e.g., the police or the military). In nations that do not honor habeas corpus, people simply disappear into prisons without ever having their day in court.

Several controversial Supreme Court cases have come out of Gitmo. One fundamental question that has been debated, but not clearly resolved, is to what extent the war on terror justifies the President’s indefinite detention of enemy combatants without the possibility of the minimal judicial review protected by habeas corpus? Another issue in the debate is to what extent Congress must clearly authorize the President to conduct extra-judicial detentions in order for them to be legal? In 2008, the Supreme Court’s decision in Boumediene v. Bush offered some answers to these questions. However, the deeply divided 5-4 Court and the likelihood of the protracted nature of the war on terror suggest that debate around these important questions will continue. Writing the Final Paper in this course will prepare you to participate intelligently as a citizen in this ongoing debate.

Write an essay about the right of habeas corpus in the context of the war on terror. Your essay should address the following subtopics:

  1. Explain the historical evolution of habeas corpus, including its English and American traditions. The explanation of its evolution within the American tradition should include the general meaning of the right of habeas corpus in the U.S. Constitution and its relationship to the protection of other civil liberties.
  2. Provide examples from U.S. history of the suspension of habeas corpus and their applicability to the present.
  3. Analyze the relevance of habeas corpus to the contemporary U.S. situation during the war on terror, especially with respect to persons characterized by as enemy combatants or illegal combatants.
  4. Explain the U.S. Supreme Court’s interpretation of the right of habeas corpus with respect to enemy combatants or illegal combatants (i.e., the views of the five justices making up the majority in Boumediene v. Bush as well as the views of the four dissenting justices).
  5. Evaluate a minimum of four perspectives on this topic expressed by justices of the Supreme Court, leaders in other branches of government, and commentators in both the academic and popular media. Your evaluation should consider perspectives on the following topics as they relate to habeas corpus:
    1. The role of the President as Commander-in-Chief.
    2. The role of Congress in determining when habeas corpus can be suspended.
    3. The role of the Supreme Court in protecting civil liberties, including the judicial philosophy which should guide the Court in this role, and
    4. In your evaluation, you should also include your personal philosophy, values, or ideology about the balance between civil liberties and national security in the context of an unending war on terror.

Follow these requirements when writing the Final Paper:

  1. The body of the paper (excluding the title page and reference page) must be at least 1,500 words long.
  2. The paper must start with a short introductory paragraph which includes a clear thesis statement. The thesis statement must tell readers what the essay will demonstrate.
  3. The paper must end with a short paragraph that states a conclusion. The conclusion and thesis must be consistent.
  4. The paper must logically develop the thesis in a way that leads to the conclusion, and that development must be supported by facts, fully explained concepts and assertions, and persuasive reasoning.
  5. The paper must address all subtopics outlined above. At least 20% of the essay must focus on subtopic five, listed above (your evaluation of perspectives on the topic).
  6. Your paper must cite at least three academic articles (excluding the course textbook) and at least four other kinds of sources (e.g., Supreme Court opinions, magazine or newspaper articles, the course textbook, and reliable websites or videos).
  7. Use your own words. While brief quotes from sources may be used, altogether the total amount of quoted text must be less than five percent of the body of your paper.
  8. When you use someone else’s words, they must be enclosed in quotation marks followed by an APA in-text short citation (author, year, and page) to your source. The in-text citation must correspond to a full APA citation for the source on the reference page at the end of the essay.
  9. When you express in your own words someone else’s ideas, arguments or facts, your statement must be followed by an APA in-text short citation (author, year, and page) to your source. The in-text citation must correspond to a full APA citation for the source in the reference page.
  10. The form of the title page, the body pages, and the reference page must comply with APA style. Additionally, the title page must include the course number and name, the instructor’s name, and the date submitted.
  11. The paper must use logical paragraph and sentence transitions, complete and clear sentences, and correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

For this paper you need to do research in peer-reviewed journals or other sources that are considered to have reliable information. In addition to your required course text, you need at least seven scholarly sources, three of which must be peer-reviewed journal articles from the Ashford Online Library.

Academic research papers must meet university level standards of quality. What constitutes quality, academic research?

  • Primary sources written by experts in the field of study
  • Secondary sources supported by research in primary sources
  • Credible sources (experts in the area of study)
  • Relevant research (materials are pertinent to the area of study)
  • Peer-reviewed journal articles (journal articles reviewed by recognized experts in the relevant field of study).
  • Educational and government websites (those ending with a web URL suffix of .edu or .gov) may be appropriate in some cases but should be evaluated carefully.

Please visit the Academic Research section on your course homepage (accessible through the Student Responsibilities and Policies tab on the left navigation toolbar) to review what types of materials are not acceptable for academic, university level research.

The paper must be at least 1,500 words in length and formatted according to APA style. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar

Explain the U.S. Supreme Court’s interpretation of the right of habeas corpus with respect to enemy combatants or illegal combatants (i.e., the views of the five justices making up the majority in Boumediene v.

Civil Liberties, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror

The final assignment for this course is a Final Paper. The purpose of the Final Paper is to give you an opportunity to apply much of what you have learned about American national government to an examination of civil liberties in the context of the war on terror. The Final Paper represents 20% of the overall course grade.

Soon after the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, the Bush administration developed a plan for holding and interrogating captured prisoners. They were sent to a prison inside a U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, on land leased from the government of Cuba. Since 2002, over 700 men have been detained at Gitmo. Most have been released without charges or turned over to other governments. In 2011, Congress specifically prohibited the expenditure of funds to transfer Gitmo prisoners to detention facilities in the continental United States, making it virtually impossible to try them in civilian courts. As of April 2012, 169 remained in detention at Gitmo (Sutton, 2012).

An assumption made by the Bush administration in selecting this location was that it was beyond the jurisdiction of U.S. courts. The administration wanted to avoid any judicial oversight of how it handled detainees, characterized as enemy combatants. A possible legal challenge to indefinite detention with no formal charges or judicial proceedings might arise from the habeas corpus provision of the Constitution.

Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution states, “The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.” Under this provision, persons detained by the government are entitled to a judicial hearing to determine if there is any legal basis for their detention. Some legal commentators refer to the right of habeas corpus as the “great writ of liberty” because it is a prisoner’s ultimate recourse to an impartial judge who can review the possibility that he is being held illegally by the executive (e.g., the police or the military). In nations that do not honor habeas corpus, people simply disappear into prisons without ever having their day in court.

Several controversial Supreme Court cases have come out of Gitmo. One fundamental question that has been debated, but not clearly resolved, is to what extent the war on terror justifies the President’s indefinite detention of enemy combatants without the possibility of the minimal judicial review protected by habeas corpus? Another issue in the debate is to what extent Congress must clearly authorize the President to conduct extra-judicial detentions in order for them to be legal? In 2008, the Supreme Court’s decision in Boumediene v. Bush offered some answers to these questions. However, the deeply divided 5-4 Court and the likelihood of the protracted nature of the war on terror suggest that debate around these important questions will continue. Writing the Final Paper in this course will prepare you to participate intelligently as a citizen in this ongoing debate.

Write an essay about the right of habeas corpus in the context of the war on terror. Your essay should address the following subtopics:

  1. Explain the historical evolution of habeas corpus, including its English and American traditions. The explanation of its evolution within the American tradition should include the general meaning of the right of habeas corpus in the U.S. Constitution and its relationship to the protection of other civil liberties.
  2. Provide examples from U.S. history of the suspension of habeas corpus and their applicability to the present.
  3. Analyze the relevance of habeas corpus to the contemporary U.S. situation during the war on terror, especially with respect to persons characterized by as enemy combatants or illegal combatants.
  4. Explain the U.S. Supreme Court’s interpretation of the right of habeas corpus with respect to enemy combatants or illegal combatants (i.e., the views of the five justices making up the majority in Boumediene v. Bush as well as the views of the four dissenting justices).
  5. Evaluate a minimum of four perspectives on this topic expressed by justices of the Supreme Court, leaders in other branches of government, and commentators in both the academic and popular media. Your evaluation should consider perspectives on the following topics as they relate to habeas corpus:
    1. The role of the President as Commander-in-Chief.
    2. The role of Congress in determining when habeas corpus can be suspended.
    3. The role of the Supreme Court in protecting civil liberties, including the judicial philosophy which should guide the Court in this role, and
    4. In your evaluation, you should also include your personal philosophy, values, or ideology about the balance between civil liberties and national security in the context of an unending war on terror.

Follow these requirements when writing the Final Paper:

  1. The body of the paper (excluding the title page and reference page) must be at least 1,500 words long.
  2. The paper must start with a short introductory paragraph which includes a clear thesis statement. The thesis statement must tell readers what the essay will demonstrate.
  3. The paper must end with a short paragraph that states a conclusion. The conclusion and thesis must be consistent.
  4. The paper must logically develop the thesis in a way that leads to the conclusion, and that development must be supported by facts, fully explained concepts and assertions, and persuasive reasoning.
  5. The paper must address all subtopics outlined above. At least 20% of the essay must focus on subtopic five, listed above (your evaluation of perspectives on the topic).
  6. Your paper must cite at least three academic articles (excluding the course textbook) and at least four other kinds of sources (e.g., Supreme Court opinions, magazine or newspaper articles, the course textbook, and reliable websites or videos).
  7. Use your own words. While brief quotes from sources may be used, altogether the total amount of quoted text must be less than five percent of the body of your paper.
  8. When you use someone else’s words, they must be enclosed in quotation marks followed by an APA in-text short citation (author, year, and page) to your source. The in-text citation must correspond to a full APA citation for the source on the reference page at the end of the essay.
  9. When you express in your own words someone else’s ideas, arguments or facts, your statement must be followed by an APA in-text short citation (author, year, and page) to your source. The in-text citation must correspond to a full APA citation for the source in the reference page.
  10. The form of the title page, the body pages, and the reference page must comply with APA style. Additionally, the title page must include the course number and name, the instructor’s name, and the date submitted.
  11. The paper must use logical paragraph and sentence transitions, complete and clear sentences, and correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

For this paper you need to do research in peer-reviewed journals or other sources that are considered to have reliable information. In addition to your required course text, you need at least seven scholarly sources, three of which must be peer-reviewed journal articles from the Ashford Online Library.

Academic research papers must meet university level standards of quality. What constitutes quality, academic research?

  • Primary sources written by experts in the field of study
  • Secondary sources supported by research in primary sources
  • Credible sources (experts in the area of study)
  • Relevant research (materials are pertinent to the area of study)
  • Peer-reviewed journal articles (journal articles reviewed by recognized experts in the relevant field of study).
  • Educational and government websites (those ending with a web URL suffix of .edu or .gov) may be appropriate in some cases but should be evaluated carefully.

Please visit the Academic Research section on your course homepage (accessible through the Student Responsibilities and Policies tab on the left navigation toolbar) to review what types of materials are not acceptable for academic, university level research.

The paper must be at least 1,500 words in length and formatted according to APA style. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar