Where does the threat operate?  How broad in scope is the threat?  Are they a regional threat or a global threat to the US and/or its interests?

Need a 6 page Drug Trafficking threat assessment paper in turbian format.

Remember, this isn’t a history paper.  Do not submit lengthy recitations of historical events.  Including some history is OK as long as it is pertinent and clearly supports your BLUF.  Include only the facts, evidence, data, etc. that supports your main point.  In the intelligence world, consumers often have very little time to read a written product so the analyst needs to clearly get his/her most important points across clearly right up front.  The consumer may just read the first part and skim the rest of the document.

Below are the required sections.  Please include the section headings in red on your assignment.

OVERALL THREAT ASSESSMENT:  How much of a threat does this non-state actor actually pose to the United States, taking everything into consideration?

 HISTORY:  This is the section where you can discuss the history of the group, but, again, don’t give a long recitation of historical event.  Discuss why and how the threat came to be.  Why did it become a threat?  What was its initial motivation?  What environmental/societal/economic/etc. factors contributed to its formation?

MEMBERSHIP/LEADERSHIP:  Who makes up the threat?  Why do they participate in threatening the US?  What is their motivation?  Who are the leaders, if any?  How effective are they?

STRUCTURE/ORGANIZATION:  How is the threat structured?  Is there an organization?  What is it?

 CURRENT GOAL/MOTIVATION:  What is the current goal/motivation of the threat entity?  What is it trying to achieve?  Has it evolved since its formation?

 TACTICS/CAPABILITIES:  What tactics does the threat employ?  How capable are they?  What weapons/tools do they use?

FUNDING/CONNECTIONS:  Where does the threat get funding?  Supplies?  Weapons?  Does the threat have connections to any other organizations, nation-states, etc.?

LOCATION/SCOPE/MAGNITUDE:  Where does the threat operate?  How broad in scope is the threat?  Are they a regional threat or a global threat to the US and/or its interests?

COUNTERING THE THREAT:  Please suggest possible ways to mitigate or counter the threat.  Try to think outside the box and be a little creative.  I understand that you won’t have total information, but just give it a try!

If any of these sections do not apply to your particular topic for some reason, you need to at least include the required section heading along with a short explanation as to why it doesn’t apply.
Be sure to use Turabian style for citation of all of your sources.  Remember, any time you borrow a sentence OR a phrase from another author, you MUST put the words in quotation marks to show that it isn’t your own writing.  Source any facts or data that you get from other sources.

Discuss why and how the threat came to be

Need a 6 page Drug Trafficking threat assessment paper in turbian format.

Remember, this isn’t a history paper.  Do not submit lengthy recitations of historical events.  Including some history is OK as long as it is pertinent and clearly supports your BLUF.  Include only the facts, evidence, data, etc. that supports your main point.  In the intelligence world, consumers often have very little time to read a written product so the analyst needs to clearly get his/her most important points across clearly right up front.  The consumer may just read the first part and skim the rest of the document.

Below are the required sections.  Please include the section headings in red on your assignment.

OVERALL THREAT ASSESSMENT:  How much of a threat does this non-state actor actually pose to the United States, taking everything into consideration?

 HISTORY:  This is the section where you can discuss the history of the group, but, again, don’t give a long recitation of historical event.  Discuss why and how the threat came to be.  Why did it become a threat?  What was its initial motivation?  What environmental/societal/economic/etc. factors contributed to its formation?

MEMBERSHIP/LEADERSHIP:  Who makes up the threat?  Why do they participate in threatening the US?  What is their motivation?  Who are the leaders, if any?  How effective are they?

STRUCTURE/ORGANIZATION:  How is the threat structured?  Is there an organization?  What is it?

 CURRENT GOAL/MOTIVATION:  What is the current goal/motivation of the threat entity?  What is it trying to achieve?  Has it evolved since its formation?

 TACTICS/CAPABILITIES:  What tactics does the threat employ?  How capable are they?  What weapons/tools do they use?

FUNDING/CONNECTIONS:  Where does the threat get funding?  Supplies?  Weapons?  Does the threat have connections to any other organizations, nation-states, etc.?

LOCATION/SCOPE/MAGNITUDE:  Where does the threat operate?  How broad in scope is the threat?  Are they a regional threat or a global threat to the US and/or its interests?

COUNTERING THE THREAT:  Please suggest possible ways to mitigate or counter the threat.  Try to think outside the box and be a little creative.  I understand that you won’t have total information, but just give it a try!

If any of these sections do not apply to your particular topic for some reason, you need to at least include the required section heading along with a short explanation as to why it doesn’t apply.
Be sure to use Turabian style for citation of all of your sources.  Remember, any time you borrow a sentence OR a phrase from another author, you MUST put the words in quotation marks to show that it isn’t your own writing.  Source any facts or data that you get from other sources.

Discuss How is the threat structured?  Is there an organization?  What is it?

Need a 6 page Drug Trafficking threat assessment paper in turbian format.

Remember, this isn’t a history paper.  Do not submit lengthy recitations of historical events.  Including some history is OK as long as it is pertinent and clearly supports your BLUF.  Include only the facts, evidence, data, etc. that supports your main point.  In the intelligence world, consumers often have very little time to read a written product so the analyst needs to clearly get his/her most important points across clearly right up front.  The consumer may just read the first part and skim the rest of the document.

Below are the required sections.  Please include the section headings in red on your assignment.

OVERALL THREAT ASSESSMENT:  How much of a threat does this non-state actor actually pose to the United States, taking everything into consideration?

 HISTORY:  This is the section where you can discuss the history of the group, but, again, don’t give a long recitation of historical event.  Discuss why and how the threat came to be.  Why did it become a threat?  What was its initial motivation?  What environmental/societal/economic/etc. factors contributed to its formation?

MEMBERSHIP/LEADERSHIP:  Who makes up the threat?  Why do they participate in threatening the US?  What is their motivation?  Who are the leaders, if any?  How effective are they?

STRUCTURE/ORGANIZATION:  How is the threat structured?  Is there an organization?  What is it?

 CURRENT GOAL/MOTIVATION:  What is the current goal/motivation of the threat entity?  What is it trying to achieve?  Has it evolved since its formation?

 TACTICS/CAPABILITIES:  What tactics does the threat employ?  How capable are they?  What weapons/tools do they use?

FUNDING/CONNECTIONS:  Where does the threat get funding?  Supplies?  Weapons?  Does the threat have connections to any other organizations, nation-states, etc.?

LOCATION/SCOPE/MAGNITUDE:  Where does the threat operate?  How broad in scope is the threat?  Are they a regional threat or a global threat to the US and/or its interests?

COUNTERING THE THREAT:  Please suggest possible ways to mitigate or counter the threat.  Try to think outside the box and be a little creative.  I understand that you won’t have total information, but just give it a try!

If any of these sections do not apply to your particular topic for some reason, you need to at least include the required section heading along with a short explanation as to why it doesn’t apply.
Be sure to use Turabian style for citation of all of your sources.  Remember, any time you borrow a sentence OR a phrase from another author, you MUST put the words in quotation marks to show that it isn’t your own writing.  Source any facts or data that you get from other sources.

Describe a 6 page Drug Trafficking threat assessment paper in turbian format.

Need a 6 page Drug Trafficking threat assessment paper in turbian format.

Remember, this isn’t a history paper.  Do not submit lengthy recitations of historical events.  Including some history is OK as long as it is pertinent and clearly supports your BLUF.  Include only the facts, evidence, data, etc. that supports your main point.  In the intelligence world, consumers often have very little time to read a written product so the analyst needs to clearly get his/her most important points across clearly right up front.  The consumer may just read the first part and skim the rest of the document.

Below are the required sections.  Please include the section headings in red on your assignment.

OVERALL THREAT ASSESSMENT:  How much of a threat does this non-state actor actually pose to the United States, taking everything into consideration?

 HISTORY:  This is the section where you can discuss the history of the group, but, again, don’t give a long recitation of historical event.  Discuss why and how the threat came to be.  Why did it become a threat?  What was its initial motivation?  What environmental/societal/economic/etc. factors contributed to its formation?

MEMBERSHIP/LEADERSHIP:  Who makes up the threat?  Why do they participate in threatening the US?  What is their motivation?  Who are the leaders, if any?  How effective are they?

STRUCTURE/ORGANIZATION:  How is the threat structured?  Is there an organization?  What is it?

 CURRENT GOAL/MOTIVATION:  What is the current goal/motivation of the threat entity?  What is it trying to achieve?  Has it evolved since its formation?

 TACTICS/CAPABILITIES:  What tactics does the threat employ?  How capable are they?  What weapons/tools do they use?

FUNDING/CONNECTIONS:  Where does the threat get funding?  Supplies?  Weapons?  Does the threat have connections to any other organizations, nation-states, etc.?

LOCATION/SCOPE/MAGNITUDE:  Where does the threat operate?  How broad in scope is the threat?  Are they a regional threat or a global threat to the US and/or its interests?

COUNTERING THE THREAT:  Please suggest possible ways to mitigate or counter the threat.  Try to think outside the box and be a little creative.  I understand that you won’t have total information, but just give it a try!

If any of these sections do not apply to your particular topic for some reason, you need to at least include the required section heading along with a short explanation as to why it doesn’t apply.
Be sure to use Turabian style for citation of all of your sources.  Remember, any time you borrow a sentence OR a phrase from another author, you MUST put the words in quotation marks to show that it isn’t your own writing.  Source any facts or data that you get from other sources.

What are the fundamental shortcomings regarding to the articles confederation and perpetual union?

Assignment #1
Go to the two following websites:

www.whitehouse.gov

www.en.wikipedia.org

On the White House Home Page on the TOP Right Cornera are the words: OUR GOVERNMENT. Click and select The Constitution. Please read this entire web page.

On the Wikipedia website, enter U.S. Constitution into the search engine that is located on the Top Right Corner. This is a longer reading assignment, however you must read all the contents on this webpage.

Be sure to do all reading and answering the questions. You will be responsible to answer 4 questions after readings.

1-What are the fundamental shortcomings regarding to the articles confederation and perpetual union?
——————————

2-compare & contrast the political philosophy between john Locke and Thomas Hobbes

———————————

3-the Preamble of the U.S. Constitution sets out the origin, scope, and purpose of the Constitution, summarize the scope and purpose.

——————————-

4-Who wrote the Federalist Papers and what was their purpose?

Week #1 Assignment     (worth 10 points)

Students are to go to the following website: www.topdocumentaryfilms.com

On the Home Page, find in the Upper Right Hand Corner the Search Engine. Please enter:

After Democracy, then click enter. Select the video and watch in its entirety. This film is approximately 48 mins in length. It is very important that you watch this video. There will be 4 questions to answer.

1-What dose the video suggest about government and revolution

—————-

2- dose democracy have a historical inevitability according to the video? Describe in detail

————

3-Compare & contrast the differences between western and eastern democracy

—————-

4-Explain the vision of democracy as abstract and/or containing certain characteristics

compare & contrast the political philosophy between john Locke and Thomas Hobbes

Assignment #1
Go to the two following websites:

www.whitehouse.gov

www.en.wikipedia.org

On the White House Home Page on the TOP Right Cornera are the words: OUR GOVERNMENT. Click and select The Constitution. Please read this entire web page.

On the Wikipedia website, enter U.S. Constitution into the search engine that is located on the Top Right Corner. This is a longer reading assignment, however you must read all the contents on this webpage.

Be sure to do all reading and answering the questions. You will be responsible to answer 4 questions after readings.

1-What are the fundamental shortcomings regarding to the articles confederation and perpetual union?
——————————

2-compare & contrast the political philosophy between john Locke and Thomas Hobbes

———————————

3-the Preamble of the U.S. Constitution sets out the origin, scope, and purpose of the Constitution, summarize the scope and purpose.

——————————-

4-Who wrote the Federalist Papers and what was their purpose?

Week #1 Assignment     (worth 10 points)

Students are to go to the following website: www.topdocumentaryfilms.com

On the Home Page, find in the Upper Right Hand Corner the Search Engine. Please enter:

After Democracy, then click enter. Select the video and watch in its entirety. This film is approximately 48 mins in length. It is very important that you watch this video. There will be 4 questions to answer.

1-What dose the video suggest about government and revolution

—————-

2- dose democracy have a historical inevitability according to the video? Describe in detail

————

3-Compare & contrast the differences between western and eastern democracy

—————-

4-Explain the vision of democracy as abstract and/or containing certain characteristics

Compare & contrast the differences between western and eastern democracy

Assignment #1
Go to the two following websites:

www.whitehouse.gov

www.en.wikipedia.org

On the White House Home Page on the TOP Right Cornera are the words: OUR GOVERNMENT. Click and select The Constitution. Please read this entire web page.

On the Wikipedia website, enter U.S. Constitution into the search engine that is located on the Top Right Corner. This is a longer reading assignment, however you must read all the contents on this webpage.

Be sure to do all reading and answering the questions. You will be responsible to answer 4 questions after readings.

1-What are the fundamental shortcomings regarding to the articles confederation and perpetual union?
——————————

2-compare & contrast the political philosophy between john Locke and Thomas Hobbes

———————————

3-the Preamble of the U.S. Constitution sets out the origin, scope, and purpose of the Constitution, summarize the scope and purpose.

——————————-

4-Who wrote the Federalist Papers and what was their purpose?

Week #1 Assignment     (worth 10 points)

Students are to go to the following website: www.topdocumentaryfilms.com

On the Home Page, find in the Upper Right Hand Corner the Search Engine. Please enter:

After Democracy, then click enter. Select the video and watch in its entirety. This film is approximately 48 mins in length. It is very important that you watch this video. There will be 4 questions to answer.

1-What dose the video suggest about government and revolution

—————-

2- dose democracy have a historical inevitability according to the video? Describe in detail

————

3-Compare & contrast the differences between western and eastern democracy

—————-

4-Explain the vision of democracy as abstract and/or containing certain characteristics

-Explain the vision of democracy as abstract and/or containing certain characteristics

Assignment #1
Go to the two following websites:

www.whitehouse.gov

www.en.wikipedia.org

On the White House Home Page on the TOP Right Cornera are the words: OUR GOVERNMENT. Click and select The Constitution. Please read this entire web page.

On the Wikipedia website, enter U.S. Constitution into the search engine that is located on the Top Right Corner. This is a longer reading assignment, however you must read all the contents on this webpage.

Be sure to do all reading and answering the questions. You will be responsible to answer 4 questions after readings.

1-What are the fundamental shortcomings regarding to the articles confederation and perpetual union?
——————————

2-compare & contrast the political philosophy between john Locke and Thomas Hobbes

———————————

3-the Preamble of the U.S. Constitution sets out the origin, scope, and purpose of the Constitution, summarize the scope and purpose.

——————————-

4-Who wrote the Federalist Papers and what was their purpose?

Week #1 Assignment     (worth 10 points)

Students are to go to the following website: www.topdocumentaryfilms.com

On the Home Page, find in the Upper Right Hand Corner the Search Engine. Please enter:

After Democracy, then click enter. Select the video and watch in its entirety. This film is approximately 48 mins in length. It is very important that you watch this video. There will be 4 questions to answer.

1-What dose the video suggest about government and revolution

—————-

2- dose democracy have a historical inevitability according to the video? Describe in detail

————

3-Compare & contrast the differences between western and eastern democracy

—————-

4-Explain the vision of democracy as abstract and/or containing certain characteristics

Analyze The role of strategic covert

Discussion Reponses – approximately 150+ words

Strategic Covert Actions

The role of strategic covert action is a very sensitive yet powerful tool which can be used to influence an actor in either the political, military, diplomatic, or economic arena in a way that would provide plausible deniability for the actor conducing the action. Conflicts that may exist when an agency is in charge of conducing both covert action and intelligence collection can be foreseen in that an agency that collects intelligence to feed the strategic decision making process and also conduct covert action may result in a major decision being made without the approval of a head of state that could have severe impacts to that state’s foreign policy, or even something as severe as a country’s image. This can be seen in with the failure of the Bay of Pigs of invasion which not only failed embarrassingly for the United states but gave it a reputation of being behind major plots which not only gives reason for states not to be friendly to the United States, but also resulting in popular finger pointing whenever a world event comes around. For example after the rise of ISIS many communities in Jordan and Lebanon produced a conspiracy that the United States was behind the rise of the terrorist group. While these claims are obviously ridiculous it speaks volumes of the United States’ reputation that it has acquired after the Cold War.

 

 

Covert action is however one of the most useful tools of state craft as well as the organization in charge of the activity is well honed and being used to accomplish the state’s goals with the oversight of proper authorities. This advantage can be seen when “In 1945 the American Office of Strategic Service (OSS) identification of Japanese ‘peace feelers’ assisted its analysis that war against Japan could be terminated by negotiation.” (Scott, 169) There is also the covet nature that makes benefits of covert action potentially intangible and unknown as every revolution that seemed to support a state’s interest could be suspected of being the victim of covert action but with the advent of plausible deniability it could further shelter a state from negative effects.

 

Strategic Covert Actions 2

 

The role of covert action in relation to strategic decision making is to leverage the skills and talents that covert action lend to the situation while at the same time appearing to have no direct knowledge or contact with situation.  In the article Secret intelligence, Covert Action and Clandestine Diplomacy, Richard Aldrich state “that secret service activity includes ‘Operations to influence the world by unseen means-the hidden hand’.  The use of covert action is to further a countries, security, military, economic and business interest.  A conflict can exist when an intelligence agency is in charge of both collecting the intelligence and then using that information to carry out covert actions because now that agency is now making decisions that could affect relationships with foreign countries.  If the covert actions are traced back to a particular agency when an operation goes wrong it will most likely severely damage US relations with that country and possibly the allies of that nation.  Another issue is that agency in is execution of covert action has now engaged in policy making initiatives which should be left up to policy makers unless it was sanctioned by those who have that authority.  In the case of the Cuban Missile Crisis Georgi Bolshakov (GRU) was used to reassure President Kennedy about the Russian mission in Cuba. The Russians had set up missiles with nuclear warheads on the island and used Boslshkov to make it appear as if Washington had a back channel to the Kremlin.  It was also discovered that another Russian Agent Aleksandr Feklisov (KGB) had not been working under the direction of Moscow when he claimed that Russia would began to withdraw the missiles from the island.  He initiated actions on his own, and even though he filed a report back to his agency this was never delivered to Khrushchev, and the United States had once again deceived.  Actions like this can cause issues with trust when agencies or individual within the agencies go rogue and initiate policy on their own that may not be in line with what the leaders of that country wish to accomplish.  This kind of diplomacy can be very dangerous in situations in which two countries are on the brink of a war as it was during the Cuban Missile Crisis.  In conclusion I believe that covert action can be used to both support state craft, and it can be used as a tool to carry out actions to further the interest of a nation.

Discuss Strategic War-Time

Strategic War-Time Examples

The intelligence collection techniques that I think have been used to the greatest effect in Iraq and Afghanistan is HUMINT and SIGINT. This could be that I am a little bias of the two because I have worked for a SIGNIT and HUMINT agency. HUMINT intelligence has been great in the war on terrorism in Afghanistan. Afghanistan is a more tribal area than Iraq and while SIGNIT is still possible through the use of cell phone and internet tracking, I have noticed that best results comes from the information gathered by case officers conducting clandestine operations on the ground. SIGNIT is used to track terrorist networks, but more so the traces are coming from Pakistan and the attacks are taking place in Afghanistan. SIGNIT would have more success if not only drone strikes were conducted in Pakistan, but also raids by US forces as well.

HUMINT and SIGNIT have had great success in Iraq as well. Being that Iraq is a little more modernized that Afghanistan, there are far more people with cell phones and internet capability, this includes the terrorist organizations, which makes tracking and finding them that much easier. Specialty units in the US military and intelligence communities were able to track cells phones of leaders and target them with a raid or a drone attack. However, some terrorist became wise to the raid tactics of the units coming to capture or kill them. There is a device that the terrorist could purchase on the street corner or at a cell phone accessory shop, and this device was a little light that would light up when the cell phone rings. The bad part apart that device, is that it would light up when the cell phone lost a signal as well. So if a terrorist group is in a home and their cell phones all lost a signal at the same time, they knew that their phones have been jammed by a jamming device and a raid was about to be conducted on their home.

 

Strategic War-Time Examples2

I have spent time in both Iraq and Afghanistan; in my experience HUMINT and SIGINT have been the most effective against the threats we face there. It is amazing to me that both of these countries have progressed little in 2000 years, however every time I am out in a city almost every person I see has a cell phone! Of course this includes the bad guys as well, they have enhanced their tradecraft when using phones or radios but a lot of them have not. This of course affords us ample opportunities to utilize SIGINT when tracking and targeting insurgents to devastating effect. However HUMINT is quite effective as well in these countries, particularly due to the high level of cultural backstabbing that occurs.

Speaking from my experience working with just one of the agencies in the IC, it appears that the most successful use of these two tools, in either country, is by combining the two in support of each other. I have seen the convergence of these two disciplines many times in the field and together they are extremely versatile through human intelligence efforts, the United States might be able to recruit a tribal leader previously loyal to the Taliban in Afghanistan. By comparing his conversations with the Taliban through the use of Signals Intelligence, a higher level of confidence might be achieved concerning his true loyalty1.  This technique is often employed and quite successfully. HUMINT is a very useful tool for us although it can be difficult to employ and is susceptible to the whims of the asset. In both countries we know we are dealing with questionable characters with questionable motivations. If we have a measure of control on the asset we can then use SIGINT to further vet or exploit an asset. We could take advantage of technology to examine the assets electronic devices to determine associates or to track the asset to determine his truthfulness. Exploiting cell phones is a bit more successful in Iraq due to the country being a little ahead of Afghanistan technologically. This also affords us an edge in Iraq using SIGINT to correlate relationships amongst insurgent groups. I have seen targeters ply their trade in the field and it is very impressive. By tracking one cell phone number or phone they are able to connect relationships with other insurgents called from that phone, then traced from phone to phone down the line. Target locations can be roughly located, then possibly confirmed or narrowed down by a HUMINT source. There are a great deal more technical descriptions involved in this process; I am always truly impressed by the possibilities using SIGINT.

 

HUMINT is so crucial in Afghanistan because the dirt bags spend a great deal of time in very remote and technologically poor areas. Specifically near the Pakistan border we frequently use the same process in reverse when SIGINT falls short. HUMINT source intelligence has been around since the first person thought to gather intelligence; it has the ability to reach almost anywhere and is not solely dependent on technology.