How did the indigenous people of Latin America react to Iberians?

How did the indigenous people of Latin America react to Iberians?

How did the indigenous people of Latin America react to Iberians? How did they adapt to Iberian culture (that is, how did indigenous cultures and societies change during the colonial period)? How did they resist Spanish and Portuguese rule? How did the responses and experiences of sedentary, semi-sedentary, and non-sedentary indigenous people differ during the colonial period, and how were they the same (if at all)? Did indigenous people and their cultures die out during the colonial period, as popular belief suggests?  Please address the colonial period as a whole from the eve of the conquest to the end of the colonial period. Please also do not just focus on sedentary Inca and Aztec societies; take into account the various different other Native peoples of colonial Latin America.

You must cite at least one primary source (historical document), like the excerpts from Victors and Vanquished  or the text book Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History (by Mills, Taylor, and Graham). You must cite two other sources as well. The paper should be 6 – 7 pp., have an intro and conclusion, and  citations, with a works cited or references page.

 

What individuals and groups were involved in opposing slavery?

Purpose: To examine and discuss major developments in the movement to abolish slavery from the founding of the nation in the late 18th century through emancipation during the Civil War. Use the textbook as a resource for this essay (Chapters 8-11). The primary objective is to be able to explain various strands of abolition and relate them to the larger historical context in which they were relevant.

Process: Reread/study Chapters 8-11 in the textbook and compose a chronologically driven essay that traces opposition to slavery from the late 1700s through the Civil War. Your essay should state a clear thesis in the introductory paragraph, followed by distinct paragraphs that address the following questions (not necessarily in this order):

What forms did opposition to slavery take?
What individuals and groups were involved in opposing slavery?
What was black nationalism?
What various aims were proposed by those involved in opposing slavery?
What major events fueled opposition to slavery?
How was the nature of slavery a catalyst to the abolition movement?
What forms of resistance to slavery developed?
What various tactics were employed by abolitionists?
How did the Civil War shift from a war to preserve the Union to a war to abolish slavery?

Product: A 1000 – 1500 word essay that traces the development of abolition to slavery. Remember to tie your essay together with a clear thesis in the beginning–an assessment of the movement as a whole. You only need use the textbook as a resource for this essay. Do not quote verbatim from the text unless you are quoting from one of the many primary sources in the text–these are located in the Voices sections in the text. Every quote must be accompanied by a citation, which includes name of author and page number where the quote appears in the text. For example: “anti-slavery friends were not very abundant in Indiana” (Douglas 215).

Citations and paper should be in MLA format. If you are a history major, your paper must be formatted in Chicago Manual of Style.

Compare and contrast how Barbusse and Remarque describe trench warfare/life in the trenches.

Compare and contrast how Barbusse and Remarque describe trench warfare/life in the trenches.

This week, please listen to/read a short poem by Wilfred Owen from 1920 titled Dulce et Decorum Est, found at this link. Press the red arrow to hear it read to you. Compare it to our two readings about trench warfare to answer one of the following questions.

1) What is “the old lie” that Wilfred Owen refers to? How does either the Barbusse or Remarque reading support Owen’s position? Cite one of the authors in your reply.

2) Compare and contrast how Barbusse and Remarque describe trench warfare/life in the trenches. How are they similar or different? Is there any glory (Owen)  in this kind of warfare?

3) What were the new technologies of trench warfare? How did the new technologies change how war was waged? Cite from at least one reading, and feel free to compare to Owen, but not required.

Post an original comment responding to the discussion question, utilizing the readings in your response.

Discussion Question

1) Post a discussion question of your own, and tell the class why you want to talk about it.

Rules for discussion

1) Post an original comment responding to the discussion question, utilizing the readings in your response. There must be at least two citations from the readings to receive credit for discussion. This post must be at least 200 words.

Lecture 14

Alright, now we get down to it. So far, in leading up to this discussion about Independence throughout much of Latin America, we have been talking about all the ways in which the path to independence was complicated. First there were tensions between criollos and the Spanish Crown, the Bourbon Reforms, the Caroline Reforms, and then the larger context of the Enlightenment and all of the social change that was happening all over the world (notably France and Haiti) in the 1790s and into the early 1800s. We also read about the ways in which people in Spain resisted the installment of a French leader and created not only their own leadership group (the central junta), but their own constitution as well! So while Napoleon took on the Spanish Crown, the people in Spain were clearly saying,

(so I’m a big Kevin Hart fan…anyway, back to work!)

When talking about the central junta and the constitution that they wrote, it is important to keep in mind that initially, it was designed as a form of self-government to keep things going while they waited for Ferdinand to come back and did their best to ignore French rule. But along the way, some people started to take seriously the idea of self-government. Others wanted the old monarchy back (Ferdinand), and still others were looking towards a combination of the two (a constitutional monarchy). Ferdinand answered this when he returned:

Of course, this is 1814, and by then, at least a fledgling independence movement had started in Mexico, though without the support of the American elite (wealthy criollos, at least to start), and would eventually be led by Jose Morelos, until he was executed. But you will notice that if you look at the timeline at the beginning of your chapter for this week, 1818 was the earliest successful declaration of independence (Chile, after defeating the royalists that same year).

But initially, as your text points out, the fighting that occurred in Spanish America was not necessarily between loyalists and insurrectionists. Instead, the fighting was most often over “regional control, or for loot” (p. 360). Moreover, even when the fighting eventually turned into a pitched battle between insurgents and loyalists (the royal army), the people who were fighting were not necessarily “homegrown,” that is to say that the place in which they fought was not always where they were from. Irish and English adventurers, for example, fought for Bolivar between 1816 and 1825, and colonialists would fight in regions pretty far afield from where their homes were (p. 360-361). Sure, this lowered desertion rates, but it also meant that a lot more people died of disease, due to the change in climate and temporary living conditions that were often unsanitary (p.361).

The fighting continued all throughout South America and Mexico (Brazil escaped the overt fighting; their battles were much more political), but the military battles were only a part of the dramatic changes that were happening: there were also political battles being fought, on very different fronts. Despite the shifts in control in South America between royalists and insurgents (rebels has taken the viceregal capital, and large areas of both New Granada and Venezuela had come under their control), the balance of power for a long time was still with the royalists. Sure, for five years after the restoration of Ferdinand (1814-1819) the insurgents made some strategic gains here and there, but they had yet to confront the full force of the imperial state. But something happened on January 1, 1820, which would change everything: Ferdinand VII accepted the Constitution of Cadiz.

How did this happen? well, on January 1, 1820, an army of some 14,000 men, which had been assembled at Cadiz for the express purpose of reconquering insurgent territories of the River Plate (Río de la Plata) suddenly mutinied. Most garrisons (forts) in Spain joined the pronunciamiento, or revolt, and Ferdinand VII, his army having turned against him, was forced to renounce absolutism and accept the Cadiz constitution of 1812.

Why did the army revolt? The immediate cause had less to do with the liberal convictions (support for the Cadiz constitution) than  with discontent over pay, and plans to reduce the size of the armed forces. The consequences of this were huge, though, because the existence of the Constitution of Cadiz provided an alternative source of political legitimacy– something that people could lean on; even if they weren’t “liberal,” they could still be against the absolute monarchy and have a framework for a legitimate government.

The truth is that after Napoleon’s intervention in Spain it was going to be impossible for the Spanish Crown to reconstruct its monopoly of legitimacy and power. And with this loss of total legitimacy on the Peninsula, their legitimacy in America would soon follow.

People from all different walks of life fought in the wars for Independence, and they fought on various sides. Some might have been hardcore royalists, others might have been “enlightened” folks seeking independence from Spain, and still others might have fought for their local caudillo, or strongman (a strong, local/regional political figure). Some people fought for loot and land, while other people fought for political ideals. The path to victory, or independence, however, was not a result of the strong will of Americans to be free; many things had to fall into place (or out of place!) for independence to finally come to fruition.

But with independence, now they had to govern, and this would prove a difficult task, one that would discourage and depress even Simon Bolívar. On December 17, 1830, Bolívar died of tuberculosis on his way to self-imposed exile in Europe. He had become a disillusioned man; shortly before he died he made his most famous observation on the colonies he had helped to emancipate: “America is ungovernable. Those who have served the revolution have plowed the sea.”*

So what happens next? Do the new countries of Latin America survive? What turbulence is coming their way in the wake of independence?

*Letter to General Juan Jose Flores, 9 November 1830, in Simón Bolívar: Obras Completas, ed. Vincent Lecuna, 2nd ed. (Havana: Editorial Lex, 1950), vol. 3, p. 501.

Describe your overall experience of locating these primary sources. Was it challenging or straightforward?

In two to three paragraphs, respond to each question. To develop your responses, combine your experience deploying search terms to locate the three primary sources in this learning block with your own reflections on the questions posed. Regardless of whether or not you were able to find all three sources, complete all question prompts before you submit your responses. It is especially helpful for your instructor to know what search terms you did use if you weren’t able to find the primary sources so that they can provide you with the feedback you need to develop effective search terms.

Describe your overall experience of locating these primary sources. Was it challenging or straightforward? Did you learn anything interesting along the way?

*Were you able to locate an interview with Tom Evans, a close friend of President Truman’s, who interacted with scientists who were trying to reach Truman with their campaign against the use of the atomic bomb? Share your search terms and a link to the primary source.

* Were you able to locate a petition against the use of the atomic bomb circulated by Szilard directed toward President Truman? Share your search terms and a link to the primary source.

*Were you able to locate an interview with Lilli Hornig, a scientist who signed Szilard’s petition against the use of the atomic bomb? Share your search terms and a link to the primary source.

 

Dear Students,

To help you with the  2-1 short response, refer back to Primary Sources in the module for the three digital repositories which is where you will find your “answers”.

As you explore each repository, try to locate the following primary sources that you might consult to write a chapter about Szilard’s campaign against dropping the atomic bomb. Each primary source is located in only one of the above repositories. Try your best to locate each source, but it is OK if you are not able to locate all three. If you are successful in your search, try skimming through the sources you find. Remember this is a reflection of your experience with this research and there are no “right or wrong answers” – you are only sharing your experience trying to research these areas.

  1.     The transcription of the oral history interview with Tom Evans, a close friend of President Truman’s, discussing scientists opposition to the use of the atomic bomb
  2.     A petition against the use of the atomic bomb circulated by Szilard directed toward President Truman
  3.     An interview with Lilli Hornig, a scientist who signed Szilard’s petition against the use of the atomic bomb

To do this assignment, develop search terms similar to the examples shown in the overview. Only use these three online repositories to locate these sources—do not consult Google or any other search engine. Take notes on the search terms that are successful, and keep the links to the sources you find. You will need this for the short response activity in this learning block.

How the Undocumented Youth Movement Transformed the Immigrant Rights Debate.

Answer the four questions below in essay format. Each answer to each of the questions must be between 1- 2 pages, so you must submit a final between 6-8  pages total. Your answers must be based on your reading of the book: The DREAMers: How the Undocumented Youth Movement Transformed the Immigrant Rights Debate. By, Walter J. Nichols. This final is not a research paper so you must not use any outside sources. If you use outside sources, you will get a zero (0) score for that particular question where the outside source is used. 

Based on the Story of the DREAMers as told in the book, explain and analyze the most important aspects of the struggle for a legal status that led to the creation of this movement.

  1. Identify and discuss messages created by the immigrant rights organizations in 2001 for the DREAMers and what were the positive and negative aspects of these messages intended to transform them into “exceptional immigrants”?
  2. What disagreements over strategy emerged between the DREAMers and some of the immigrant rights organizations that led to the DREAMers breaking away?
  3. “Undocumented, Unafraid and Unapologetic” became the new message crafted by the DREAMers, discuss why this new representation became a “coming out” moment for the undocumented youth?
  4. As part of their “multifront war” of trying to achieve victories,  identify and discuss the laws  that were passed at the state level in California and the policy enacted by the Obama administration, that would provide for Dreamers a “de-facto legality.”

Discusses the social, political, and economic organizations of your chosen site.

Discusses the social, political, and economic organizations of your chosen site.

Overview

For this assignment, submit a 5 to 7 page (1250 – 1750 words) research paper (this does not include the title page, abstract, or References pages).  Use the initial information from the Research Topic, References, and Outline Assignments from Modules 2, 4, and 5.

Instructions

Your research should include the following elements:

  • Discusses the social, political, and economic organizations of your chosen site.
  • Does your site/culture have a written language? Discusses the form of communication.
  • Identifies the belief systems of your site/culture.
  • Describes specific artifacts or ecofacts associated with your site/culture.
  • Concludes with your analysis, based on your archaeological evidence, of why and how this culture rose and fell.

What are your thoughts regarding the soldier’s response to their treatment by the Houston Police Department?  

What are your thoughts regarding the soldier’s response to their treatment by the Houston Police Department?

Go to YouTube and enable the documentary, “Mutiny on the Bayou”, and write an essay responding to the following questions:

1. The Camp Logan Mutiny took place, August 23, 1917, in Houston, Texas. How did the Supreme Court case, Plessy v.  Ferguson (1896)affect the status of Blacks? What are your thoughts regarding the soldier’s response to their treatment by the Houston Police Department?

2. Are there similarities/contrasts in police behavior 100 years after the Houston Riot/Camp Logan Mutiny? (For context, compare the Plessy case and the Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964.)

3. The essay should be 2 1/2-3 pages (EXCLUDING the title page), 12 font, double space, and MLA format.

IMPORTANT!!! Make sure to cite your research sources (if any). PLAGIARISM is a serious academic issue and will result a failing grade on this assignment and will be factored in with your final grade.

Please up load your work. Do not upload Pages, or Googledocs.

What are the major conflicts in The Aeneid?

What are the major conflicts in The Aeneid?

Write on one of the following topics:

Topic 1:

What are the major conflicts in The Aeneid? Go beyond just Dido and Aeneas, Greeks and Trojans, to consider other less obvious ones. What types of conflicts (physical, moral, intellectual, or internal) can you detect? Describe the conflict(s), and resolution if there is one, in detail with multiple references to the text in your response.

Topic 2:

Compare carefully the opening lines of The IliadThe Odyssey, and The Aeneid. How does the opening of Virgil’s poem set itself apart from those earlier openings of Homer, which most of his readers could repeat by heart? How is Virgil’s introduction both alike and different from Homer’s? Especially, how does the opening of Virgil’s poem sound out themes that are unique to Roman culture, its historical role, and its age? Use multiple details, examples, quotations in your response.

  • Your response should be at least 500 words in length
  • Use MLA format for any quotations or citations that you use to support your answer

Evaluate how Napoleon both continued and broke from the aims of his revolutionary predecessors.

Evaluate how Napoleon both continued and broke from the aims of his revolutionary predecessors.

Write on one (1) of the following topics:

Topic 1:

Evaluate how Napoleon both continued and broke from the aims of his revolutionary predecessors.

Topic 2:

Define “sublime” as the romantics used the term. Google paintings by the British artists J. M. W. Turner and John Constable. Using these images, discuss how the paintings reflect the sublime sensibility central to the aesthetics of Romanticism.

Topic 3:

In Book One of his Confessions, Rousseau claims, “I felt before I thought.” Other Romantic poets, like Wordsworth, Shelley, and Keats, stress feeling over thinking too. Using textual evidence from the poems, discuss how the Romantic poets privileged emotion over reason.

  • Your response should be at least 750 words in length
  • Use MLA format for any quotations or citations that you use to support your answer