Cultural norms are behaviors

Assignment Overview

For this assignment you will have the opportunity to conduct an experiment, or quasi-experiment, in order to explore deviance in our society. As we learned this week, deviance is ”any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs” (Kendall, 2013, p. 180). Cultural norms are behaviors and expectations for a group and fall into three categories: folkways, mores, and laws. For this assignment you will explore society’s reaction to a folkway violation. You will then utilize the textbook, online materials, and the South Online Library in order to write a two-page essay on the deviant (not criminal) experience.

Below you will find a step-by-step guide for completing this paper:

  • First, review the sections on Research Ethics and the subsection on Testing a Hypothesis under the section Research Methods in chapter one of your text in order to familiarize yourself with sociological experiments. Then, begin this assignment by choosing a folkway to violate. Examples include (and there are many folkways to choose from): wearing the other gender’s clothing, speaking a foreign language to an English speaker, sitting with a stranger at a restaurant, and eating dinner with your hands. Be sure to ask your facilitator if you are unsure if the norm you choose to violate is appropriate for this assignment. Here is an example of a norm violation for you to watch.
  • Violate your chosen folkway (not a law) in at least one situation and document it with pictures, video, and/or notes. Be sure to note how you feel when you violate the norm, as well as other people’s reactions to the violation. If you do not receive adequate data (reactions) in one situation, try it again in another.
  • Write an organized essay that explores the norm you violated, how you felt while being deviant, and the reactions you received while you were violating the norm. You should then analyze the experience, including the theories of deviance presented in the text. Your paper should also include an introduction with a thesis and a conclusion that reviews all main points you present.

Assignment alternative: you may choose to do a reflection paper on an instance when you have been deviant in the past. A reflection paper must contain analysis and integrate concepts from the text. Review the grading criteria to ensure that your reflection paper contains all of the necessary components.

Remember to use APA format for the essay style as well as in-text citations and when listing the references. Submit your 2–5-page essay (maximum 12 pt. font) describing your application project and your finding

Nightingales Environmental Theory

Case Study:

Mrs. Adams, a 68-year-old widow who was referred to case management upon discharge from the hospital based on her physician’s recommendation that she is not able to care for herself independently. Her diagnosis is diabetes, hypertension, and breast cancer. She is 5 days’ post-op from a right sided mastectomy. Mrs. Adams apartment is located in a low income area of the city where crime is prevalent. Upon assessment by the Community Health Nurse, Mrs. Adams apartment was in disorder with minimal airflow or light. Her cloths appeared unchanged and she had no food in the apartment. The small apartment also housed 3 cats and a small dog who Mrs. Adams considers family since the death of her husband 1 year ago. Mrs. Adams complains of pain and draining from her surgical site and a broken air conditioner.

  • Using Nightingales Environmental Theory, what actions would the nurse take upon the first assessment? What are the five essential components?
  • What would be an appropriate plan of care be for Mrs. Adams? How would you prioritize the care plan?
  • Apply Nightingale’s Environmental Theory to an area of your nursing practice? What patient population would benefit from this approach? Support this practice change with at least one evidenced-based article.

The assignment should be completed in APA format, as an essay of between 1000 and 1500 words. The paper should include at least 3 outside references and the textbook. The paper should be in APA format with a title page, level headings, and reference page.

Create an annotated bibliography for each of the three references. 

Three references from your Reference List assignment. Create an annotated bibliography for each of the three references.

Each annotation must have 200 words, making a total of 600 words for the entire assignment. Each annotation should have the following elements:

1. APA style reference of the article being annotated

2. A paraphrased summary of the article

3. An assessment of why it is a scholarly reference

4. A reflection on how it is applicable to your research

 

Note on Paraphrasing: Paraphrasing the ideas of others is a requirement in academic writing and graduate study. Paraphrasing is using your own words to restate ideas or information from a source material. As you write each annotation use the following paraphrasing guidelines.

There are three main steps to paraphrasing:

1. Identify the original idea(s) in the article

2. Identify general points regarding the idea(s)

3. Summarize the general points of the article in your own words

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide

Provide a description of each component or phase in the translation science model

 Reflect on your selected practice problem and address the following:

·  Select one of the translation science theories from your readings or lesson this week.

·  The integration of research into clinical practice takes an average of 17 years or more and such a delay has greatly contributed to the current knowledge-practice gap as well as poor health outcomes (White et al., 2016). Timely translation of research knowledge into practice is essential to improving patient safety and nursing practice. Translation science theories were developed to lessen the time it takes for new evidence to reach the patient at the bedside (White et al., 2016). Obesity is a global, national, and local problem impacting the lives of so many individuals. The Knowledge-to-Action (KTA) model is one of the translation science theories. The framework provides an analytical and practical tool for clinical practice which through application has remarkably and positively impacted the quality of care and patient outcomes (Xu et al., 2020).  According to Sturgiss and Douglas (2016), it has been used successfully to specifically create a weight management toolkit to combat obesity in general practitioners in Australia where obesity was prevalent.

·  Provide a description of each component or phase in the translation science model

·  The KTA model involves a repetitive process consisting of two interconnecting cycles, the knowledge-creation cycle, and the application or action cycle (Xu et al., 2020). The KTA framework was designed not only for use by clinicians in healthcare practice but by other users beyond nursing practice (White et al., 2016).

·  The knowledge-creation cycle comprises three phases which include knowledge inquiry, knowledge synthesis, and the formation of more adaptable knowledge tools to meet the needs of both clinicians and researchers (Xu et al., 2020).  It entails researching, appraising, and refining knowledge into easier-to-use new knowledge tools or products for all end-users (White et al., 2016).  White et al. (2016) further note, at each step, the creator of knowledge is capable of molding activities to meet peculiar questions and needs.

·  The action cycle consists of seven components or phases and aims at transforming knowledge into practice (Xu et al., 2020). It involves all the knowledge implementation or application initiatives (White et al., 2016). The seven components include problem identification, knowledge adaptation, the examination of barriers, application of the selected knowledge, monitoring, analyzing, and sustaining knowledge (Xu et al., 2020).

·  Discuss the phase(s) in the theory when the evidence is appraised (evaluated). Why is this step important?

·  Appraisal of knowledge occurs during the three phases of the knowledge-creation cycle. Primary research is conducted at the knowledge inquiry phase, a systematic review of evidence is conducted in the synthesis phase, and the final phase involves the creation of new tools and products for end users like aids, Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs), or videos. At any of the steps, the producer or creator of knowledge can use an integrated approach and tailor activities to answer precise research questions or meet the needs of the end-user (White et al., 2016).

·  Why is this step important?

·  The appraisal step is relevant in selecting the best new evidence to ensure that the knowledge tools or products created are effectively tailored to meet the needs of clinicians and all end-user in the translation process thus improve patient outcomes. According to Melnyk, (2016), understanding the different forms of evidence and the ability to systematically locate, critically review and synthesize the strength of evidence is crucial in enhancing clinical practice and patient care outcomes. The critical appraisal process helps identify reliable and high-quality evidence relevant and valuable to any specific practice (Al-Jundi & Sakka, 2017).

·

·                                                                                              References

·  Al-Jundi, A., & Sakka, S. (2017). Critical appraisal of clinical research. Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research, 11(5), 1-5. https://doi:10.7860/JCDR/2017/26047.9942

·  Melnyk, B. M. (2016). Level of evidence plus critical appraisal of its quality yields confidence to implement evidence-based practice changes. Worldviews On Evidence-Based Nursing13(5), 337-339. https://doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12181 (Links to an external site.)

·  Sturgiss, E. A., & Douglas, K. (2016). A collaborative process for developing a weight management toolkit for general practitioners in Australia-an intervention development study using the knowledge to action framework. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 2, 20. https://doi:10.1186/s40814-016-0060-4Links to an external site.

·  White, K. M., Dudley-Brown, S., & Terhaar, M. F. (2016). Translation of evidence into nursing and health care (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing Company.

·  Xu, Y., Li, S., Zhao, P., & Zhao, J. (2020). Using the knowledge-to-action framework with joint arthroplasty patients to improve the quality of care transition: A quasi-experimental study. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 15(1), 31. https://doi:10.1186/s13018-020-1561-7Links to an external site.

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I NEED A COMMENT FOR THIS POST WITH AT LEAST 2-4  PARAGRAPH AND  SOURCES NO LATER THAN FIVE YEARS

What problems and issues do you see if made legal in all of the United States

As we have seen in the cases of The Rights and Treatment of Patients, Abortion,Organ Transplants, Genetic Technology and now Death and Dying issues. There are many ethical issues involved concerning right and wrong actions.

  • The issues involving Euthanasia can make it a difficult procedure to control and regulate.
  • What problems and issues do you see if made legal in all of the United States
  • What would Secular Humanists believe based on their belief in RELATIVISM
  • What would Judaeo Christians believe based on their belief in ABSOLUTISM
  • Do we really respect life in this country?

Unit  ObjectivesDemonstrate Knowledge of The Issue of Life and Death and the Pro and Cons of Euthanasia
Suicide – the act or an instance of taking one’s own life voluntarily and intentionally. Euthanasia-Euthanasia (from Greek: εὐθανασία; “good death”: εὖ, eu; “well” or “good” – θάνατος, thanatos; “death”) is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering. There are different euthanasialaws in each country.Proponents of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) contend that terminally ill people should have the right to end their suffering with a quick, dignified, and compassionate death. They argue that the right to die is protected by the same constitutional safeguards that guarantee such rights as marriage, procreation, and the refusal or termination of life-saving medical treatment.

Opponents of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide contend that doctors have a moral responsibility to keep their patients alive as reflected by the Hippocratic Oath. They argue there may be a “slippery slope” from euthanasia to murder, and that legalizing euthanasia will unfairly target the poor and disabled and create incentives for insurance companies to terminate lives in order to save money.
Mercy Death – someone taking a direct action to end a patient’s life because the patient has requested it be doneMercy Killing-someone taking a direct action to terminate a patient’s life without the patient’s permission Brain Death- Over the last hundred years, the criteria for establishing human death has changed with knowledge from breathing    on a doctor’s mirror to today’s standard of total brain death.Harvard Medical School Criteria for establishing death
                       1. Unreceptivity and Unresposiveness to physical stimuli                       2. No spontaneous movements or breathing                       3. No reflexes                       4. A flat electroencephalogram (EEG) Allowing Someone to Die- implies a essential recognition that there is some point in any terminal illness when further curative treatment has no purpose and that a patient in this situation should be allowed a natural death in comfort, peace and dignity.
Ordinary and Extraordinary care are distinguished by some bioethical theories, including the teaching of the Catholic Church.[1] Ordinary care is obligatory, food, hydration, water, medication, surgery but can become extraordinary care under certain situations.[2] Extraordinary care is care whose provision involves a disproportionately great burden on the patient or community, and hence is not morally obligatory.

On the Catholic version of the distinction, the natural provision of life necessities, such as food, air, and water, is an example of ordinary care, although it does not exhaust ordinary care, since easily performed medical procedures (that do not impose an undue burden on patient and community) will also be ordinary care. Many times, what was once considered extraordinary care becomes ordinary with developing medical knowledge (Organ transplants were once considered extraordinary care.

Principle of Hope of Benefit- in the treatment of serious illness there a point when further experimental treatment options become questionable in terms of their value to the patient’s quality of life. How will help or hurt this person?
Hospice Care/Palliative CareHospice care: Care designed to give supportive care to people in the final phase of a terminal illness and focus on comfort and quality of life, rather than cure. The goal is to enable patients to be comfortable and free of pain, so that they live each day as fully as possiblePeople often confuse hospice vs. palliative care. In fact, hospice care includes palliative care within it…. However, for non-terminal patients, palliative care is about managing the symptoms and side-effects of life-limiting and chronic illness.Advanced Directives- legal documents such as Living Will, Proxys (permanent or temporary)etc. which direct care if patient becomes incompetent.  Readings: Shannon Chap. 8,9,10,11                 O’Rourke Chap. 5 (Advanced Directives) Chap.11(Assisted Suicide) Chap. 21(Death)  Chap. 30(Euthanasia) Chap.41( Hospice)                  Chap.53 (Ordinary and Extraordinary Care)                  Chap.56 (Palliative Care)                  Chap. 71 (Suicide)                  Chap. 78( Life Support)

Pro and Cons of Euthanasia(Click on Reading Below)

http://www.euthanasia.com/proscons.html

View Videos: (Click on Links Below to watch 2 videos)

A Woman’s Assisted Suicide

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6RKTuDYp6M8

Arguments Against Euthanasia ( select a video)

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=cons+against+Euthanasia+videos

Describe the use of apostrophes in writing in general. When should apostrophes be used in formal writing?

There are 4 parts to the assignment. Please place all four assignments into one paper. The different parts should be clearly marked so your professor knows which question you are addressing.

  1. Rewrite the following essays. Correct all errors in capitalization, spelling, and punctuation. Divide the passage into appropriate paragraphs.
  • Essay #1:

When my husband Joe had cancer surgery five years ago, each of his family members responded just as I knew they would. John, his father, decided to organize the family’s calls. Because, of course, everything would run so much more smoothly. Thus Jane, Matt, and Jim received detailed sheets of instructions in the mail. Telling them which days to telephone r.j. smith hospital to talk to Joe and what presents to send. Jane, enraged, promptly threw a tantrum. Calling Matt and me to complain about her father’s overbearing behavior. “I,” she yelled, “am a Psychiatrist who knows how to handle these situations, i am not still a child.” Matt also responded predictably. By avoiding the situation. He threw himself into his work. Normally a late sleeper, Matt took to leaving at 5:00 a.m., driving on the deserted expressway and arriving at work before six a.m. In addition, he didn’t return until 11:00 p.m. When he would fall into bed so exhausted that he couldn’t worry about Joe. Jim, too, responded predictably. He fumed inside for weeks, ignored John’s instructions, and sent cartons of books to Joe. So that he would never be bored. The books were funny. Because Jim had read Norman Cousins’ book about the healing power of laughter. Within a few months, Joe recovered from the surgery-in spite of his family

    • Essay #2:

Treatment of atrial septal defect depends upon the size and symptoms and therefore is individualized an atrial septal defect of less than 3mm usually closes spontaneously (The Merck Manual, 2006). When the defect is between 3mm and 8mm it closes spontaneously in eighty percent of cases by the age of eighteen months, however, atrial septal defects located in the anteroinferior aspect of the septum (ostium primum) or in the posterior aspect of the septum near the superior vena cava or inferior vena cava (sinus venosus) don’t close spontaneously. If the defect is very small does not close spontaneously and the patient is asymptomatic. The treatment may be simply too monitor via an annual echocardiogram. Of course their is a risk of patients’ becoming symptomatic.

 

Moderate-sized atrial septal defects or larger or patients’ who are symptomatic require closure of the shunt this is usually done between the ages of 2 and 6 years. A catheter-delivered closure device, such as Amplatzer Septal Occluder or Cardio-Seal device. May be used for closure of atrial septal defects less than 13mm in size, except than primum or sinus venosus defects. If the defect is greater than thirteen milimeters or located near important structures. Surgical repair becomes necessary. If the atrial septal defect is repaired during childhood there mortality rates approach 0 and the patient’s life expectancy approaches that of the general population prior to surgical repair, patients may need to be treated with diuretics; digoxin; ACE inhibitor; or beta blockers to prevent congestive heart failure (Moser & Riegel, 2007). Following surgical repair patience will receive aspirin to prevent clots, and be monitored closely for dysrhythmias and pulmonary hypertension. Oxygen and nitric oxide therapy have proven to be beneficial in treating postoperative pulmonary hypertension. Also patients who have primum atrial septal defect will need endocarditis prophylaxis.

  1. Guided writing exercise:
    • Think about a recent experience you have had that required you to use critical thinking skills. Set a timer for five minutes. Write about your experience. Do not worry about grammar, punctuation, or spelling. Just write, but stop at five minutes. Now go back and write your experience with correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Submit both written pieces. Add a concluding paragraph that answers the follows questions: How was the formal writing experience different from the timed writing experience? What did you do differently? Was there any difference in the time it took you? How did you ensure your spelling, grammar, and punctuation were correct?
  2. Describe when the following words would be used in a scholarly essay (define each word). Then, use those that are appropriate to a scholarly essay in a sentence.
    • Their, there, they’re
    • Affect, effect
    • Its, it’s
    • your, you’re
    • then, than
    • accept, except
  3. Describe the use of apostrophes in writing in general. When should apostrophes be used in formal writing? When should apostrophes be avoided in formal writing?

Note: There is no Synthesis Paper assignment due this week.

Assignment Expectations

Length: N/A

Structure: Place all 4 parts in one document

References: N/A

 What details did the patient provide regarding  their chief complaint and symptomology to derive your differential  diagnosis?

  • Select an adult patient that you examined during the last 4 weeks who presented with a disorder other than the disorder present in your Week 3 Case Presentation.
  • Create a Focused SOAP Note on this patient using the template  provided in the Learning Resources. There is also a completed Focused  SOAP Note Exemplar provided to serve as a guide to assignment  expectations.

 

  • Present the full complex case study. Include chief complaint;  history of present illness; any pertinent past psychiatric, substance  use, medical, social, family history; most recent mental status exam;  current psychiatric diagnosis including differentials that were ruled  out; and plan for treatment and management.
  • Report normal diagnostic results as the name of the test and  “normal” (rather than specific value). Abnormal results should be  reported as a specific value.
  • Be succinct in your presentation, and do not exceed 8 minutes.  Specifically address the following for the patient, using your SOAP note  as a guide:
  • Subjective: What details did the patient provide regarding  their chief complaint and symptomology to derive your differential  diagnosis? What is the duration and severity of their symptoms? How are  their symptoms impacting their functioning in life?
  • Objective: What observations did you make during the psychiatric assessment?
  • Assessment: Discuss patient mental status examination  results. What were your differential diagnoses? Provide a minimum of  three possible diagnoses and why you chose them. List them from highest  priority to lowest priority. What was your primary diagnosis, and  why? Describe how your primary diagnosis aligns with DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and supported by the patient’s symptoms.
  • Plan: What was your plan for psychotherapy? What was your  plan for treatment and management, including alternative therapies?  Include pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, alternative  therapies, and follow-up parameters, as well as a rationale for this  treatment and management plan. Be sure to include at least one health  promotion activity and one patient education strategy.
  • Reflection notes: What would you do differently with this  patient if you could conduct the session over? If you are able to follow  up with your patient, explain whether these interventions were  successful and why or why not. If you were not able to conduct a follow  up, discuss what your next intervention would be.

 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of screening.  

 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of screening.

Discussion:

Screening is the administration of measures or tests to distinguish individuals who may have a condition from those who probably do not have it.  Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of screening.

Instructions: 

Post your discussion to the Moodle Discussion Forum.  Word limit 500 words.  Support your answers with the literature and provide citations and references in APA format.  Reply to at least two other student posts with a reflection of their response.

Differentiate between race as a descriptor and race as a risk factor.

Race is often used as a descriptor of disease burden and helps us to determine where health disparities exist in order to address them, which is important. It is helpful to differentiate between race as a descriptor and race as a risk factor. Think about institutional racism and its influence on health. Consider the factors related to race and ethnicity that might be influencing disease status more than the genetics of race when answering this discussion question.

Consider the following statement: “Race is not a risk factor and should not be used in public health data collection.” Discuss the ethical and public health implications of this statement. When might collecting data on race perpetuate institutional racism leading to health disparities and when is it necessary to improve public health? Provide support and examples for your answer. Consider ethical issues related to respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as described in “The Belmont Report.”

 

Read “Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities,” by Carter-Pokras et al., from Annals of Epidemiology (2012).

URL:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724931/

 How the process of creating your aesthetic project may help you to respond to future calls to nursing using the concepts of caring science 

 How the process of creating your aesthetic project may help you to respond to future calls to nursing using the concepts of caring science

Aesthetic Project (10%) Purpose:

The purpose of the aesthetic project is to allow the student an opportunity to demonstrate the essence of caring between nurse and nursed. A photo or scan of the project must be uploaded through the Assignment tab to be shared as a class presentation.

A written summary of the aesthetic must accompany the project. Both the presentation and the summary must address the criteria indicated with an *.

Aesthetic Project: Grading Rubric Criteria Points

The aesthetic project artform-must be something created or located (dance, poem, an original music score, story, bible verse, existing artwork, etc) 30 *

Describe in a one-two page written summary and present your work  to the class: The motivation for choosing this artform 30

The meaning/symbolism of your work 30

How this assignment deepened your understanding of nursing as caring 30

How the process of creating your aesthetic project may help you to respond to future calls to nursing using the concepts of caring science